4 Tricks to Help Struggling Students

By Meghan Belnap

Whether you are a teacher, a parent, or a tutor, it is difficult to watch a student struggle to grasp the same concepts as other children. Each child learns differently depending on his or her personality. Reaching these kids means developing new tactics for learning. Here are four ways parents and educators can address learning complications. 

Use hands-on projects to supplement learning

Some children need to interact physically with new concepts. Taking time to work on a science project that teaches gravity, or using real-world objects during math lessons can help. History maps, graphs, videos, and other items can help these students connect the terminology in the brain. 

Provide a quiet space to learn where there are fewer distractions

Some children just need a quieter space to work. Providing a desk or table away from the main area can be helpful. The key is to make sure these students do not feel alienated from the rest of the class. Giving the child a time limit or allowing a few students to take part in the side activity may help. 

Suggest tutoring sessions for one-on-one activities

Many children need specific guidance to overcome learning problems. Regular visits with a tutor can give a child a platform to ask questions. Some children are shy in front of others, and a smaller group setting can help. Tutors can determine the type of learning personality for each child and develop a plan to give these children the best chance for success. High performance tutoring determines the child’s strengths and weaknesses allowing them to learn at their pace. 

Offer recap homework

Sometimes, all a child needs to grasp a difficult concept is a little reiteration. Giving homework that goes over the primary lessons for the day can help hard lessons stick. Children need regular exposure to the same lessons to help them learn them for life. For example, a difficult math concept like factoring can take more than one day or lesson to grasp. For many students, a week-long course is necessary to get all the fine points of this lesson down pat. Giving homework that covers the major concepts each day is important for memory retention. 

Helping your students do better in class takes a little extra work. The effort is usually well-rewarded with better grades, a more positive attitude, and improved performance in class. Teachers can also point out other ways to help students get involved in the class.

Then Nothing Has Worked in Education

A common refrain from critics of American public education is that we continue to spend more money on it while getting the same disappointing results. The Wall Street Journal‘s editorial board, in an article titled, “America’s Schools Flunk,” wrote,

“The results from the 2019 National Assessment of Educational Progress, which is administered to students around the country every two years, were published on Wednesday. There isn’t much to cheer. Only 35% of fourth graders rated proficient in reading, which is about the same as in 2009. Worse, students have backslid in reading over the last two years.”

The Cato Institute published this handy graph showing how profligate our spending has been relative to our students’ performance:

Legislators have used the data to argue that we should spend far less, since spending more hasn’t worked. In a 2015 Facebook post, Representative Dave Brat wrote,

“Our own government statistics show that over 30 years, federal spending on education has grown by 375%, but test scores have remained flat. That proves that just throwing more money at education is not the solution.”

Politifact examined Brat’s statement and found it mostly true, although he plays fast and loose with the numbers since spending was at an all-time high in 2010 because of the one-time injection of stimulus money (Cato used the same trick).

Still, there’s no denying that performance on the “nation’s report card” for 17-year-olds has been stagnant while spending has climbed.

There are, of course, a number of problems with using the NAEP as the sole measure of how well American kids learn, and those problems have been outlined by better writers than me. Also, a fair amount of research has emerged that shows more spending does in fact lead to more learning, especially for low-income students:

Still, the critics aren’t wrong when they say that more spending hasn’t led to improved performance on the NAEP.

It’s just not as damning of an argument as they think it is.

Because reformers’ criticism that students aren’t learning more despite increased spending betrays a rather gaping hole in their logic to which they seem inexplicably blind:

If the only way we’re measuring education outcomes is by standardized test scores like the NAEP, then nothing has worked in education.

That includes all of their ideas, which have dominated education policy for the last 20 years. 

Teachers have their own ideas about what would improve education. Most teachers I know believe that treating teachers like professionals, making sure classrooms are staffed with certified educators, and trusting educators to make policy decisions rather than uninformed legislators and think tank boobs would improve outcomes. Teachers think that we should address poverty through social policy instead of expecting education to solve it. We believe that more recess time, fewer tests, increased teacher autonomy, and yes, more spending for the neediest students, more mental health professionals in schools, and more investment in our public education system would lead to better test scores and life outcomes.

Also, we’d like fewer school shootings.

But most of those ideas haven’t been tried. They have, like most teachers’ ideas, been ignored if not ridiculed as excuse-making.

Instead, the reformers have had their way for about two decades, starting with the punitive No Child Left Behind Act, continuing with the federal bribery scheme Race to the Top, and persisting today with the legacy of accountability measures and the attack on public schools waged daily by our Secretary of Education.

The same people who want to spend less on education invariably favor an unoriginal list of reforms, most of which have been attempted.

The National Review is as good a representative as any, and in 2013 they believed that “Liquidating the teachers’ unions, enacting vouchers and other school-choice options, abandoning the exhausted excuses for poor performance, and — conversely — boosting expectations for all students (regardless of background or circumstances) would help solve this perennial challenge.”

They largely got their way.

27 states are now right-to-work and the Supreme Court handed the reformers a victory in Janus v. AFSCME. Membership in teachers’ unions has dropped, albeit modestly, a disappointing result for reformers who’ve won multiple legislative victories but who likely have no one to blame but themselves for motivating teachers to remain with their unions so they might more effectively fight against policies designed to destroy their power.

School choice has expanded over the last 20 years, as have voucher schemes.

As for “abandoning exhausted excuses for poor performance,” that’s the heart of the entire reform movement. We’ve ignored the root causes of poor performance and achievement gaps and instead placed all responsibility on the shoulders of our educators, threatening them with their jobs if scores don’t improve enough and using silly statistical models to rate them based on their students’ (or sometimes other teachers’ students) standardized test results.

If flatlining test scores are evidence that increased spending on education hasn’t worked, then those same test scores are evidence that reformers’ ideas are equally ineffective.

If more spending hasn’t worked, then more parent choice hasn’t worked.

If more spending hasn’t worked, then neither has weakening teachers’ job protections.

If more spending hasn’t led to higher test scores, then neither have common standards.

If more money hasn’t worked then:

Higher expectations for schools haven’t worked.

Shaming and punishing schools and teachers for student test scores hasn’t worked.

New teacher evaluation systems haven’t worked (as the Gates Foundation already admitted).

Longer school years haven’t worked.

More instructional time hasn’t worked.

An intense focus on tested subjects to the diminishment of the arts and electives hasn’t worked.

Personalized learning hasn’t worked.

More technology in classrooms hasn’t worked.

Filling teaching positions with long term substitutes and uncertified teachers hasn’t worked.

If critics are going to point to stagnating test scores as evidence that more spending on education is foolish, then they must admit that their own ideas, most of which have been given a chance to work, have been equally disappointing. Flat test scores might indicate that increased spending doesn’t lead to better results. But if they do, then they also indicate that everything else we’ve tried in education has been equally fruitless. Critics who point to test scores as a reason to spend less money should also see those test scores as a reason to abandon their most cherished reform ideas.

Balancing Between STEM and Social Studies

By Frankie Wallace

STEM subjects have been a buzzword in the educational world of late, and with good reason. The subjects — science, technology, engineering, and math — are all classic boogeymen of the classroom. Challenging students and teachers alike, these four topics have often been seen as the more difficult parts of any curriculum.

Now, though, as the STEM phenomenon continues to catch fire, the subjects have once again assumed a position in the limelight, which is an undeniably wonderful thing. However, it’s important for educators to avoid a pendulum swing of attention that could ultimately leave other subjects neglected in the wake of the growing STEM momentum. 

If you teach multiple subjects to the same students, it’s absolutely essential that you strive to find a balanced approach that addresses each subject properly and leaves each student with a well-rounded education. With that in mind, here are a few suggestions for ways to create an interdisciplinary curriculum that balances STEM topics with other classroom essentials like social sciences, art, and the humanities.

Use STEM Tech Across Multiple Subjects

The modern classroom is in a perpetual race to keep up with the times. From physically advanced items like smartboards to cloud-based educational solutions like Google Classroom, the modern educator has their hands full simply obtaining and implementing these kinds of items. 

There’s no doubt that adapting to the continuous change can be a lot of work. However, that doesn’t alter the fact that the constant technological turnover presents a golden opportunity to incorporate STEM concepts across multiple subjects at once. 

For instance, if you are able to purchase new educational tablets for your classroom, you’ve just introduced a new form of tech to your students. If they use that technology to download applications that help with subjects like art and English, you can simultaneously expose your students to multiple subjects in a hands-on environment.

Combine Art and STEM

Also known as STEAM, the combination of art and STEM subjects can provide a rich atmosphere to guide student dialogue, inquiry, and critical thinking. While STEM is often associated with complex things like robotics and 3D printers, adding an art element to the mix can often help teach the core concepts that are at work.

At its root, STEM isn’t about the fancy gadgets and gizmos. It’s about skills and ideas. Core engineering concepts can be taught with cardboard boxes and string. A handful of LEGOs can be an ideal way to incorporate math and science. 

When you dial back the complex elements and aim for the core concepts, it’s easy to see where the art can also come into play. Having students build a spaceship out of a lump of clay, for instance, can be a great way to both study how a spacecraft is built and work on sculpting at the same time, developing not only their brain but fine motor skills necessary for art creation.

Combine STEM and Real Life

STEM can often feel high-minded. Nebulous concepts like math algorithms and scientific theories can be difficult to grasp. However, if you combine STEM concepts with real-world examples, it can be an excellent way to bring the topics to life and make them more relatable.

For instance, teaching cybersecurity to younger students can open their eyes to the very real dangers that face technological development. It can also provide a grounded example of the barriers that must be overcome if they pursue a career in the tech field.

Another example could be following a humanitarian crisis as a class and incorporating STEM elements into your analysis. For instance, in response to the 2019 headline story of the Amazon forest burning, students could study the geographic areas that have been affected. They could also study the scientific repercussions of the damage on the environment and even use mathematics to calculate things like how large of an area was damaged in square miles, acres, square kilometers, etc.

Combine STEM and History

STEM and history may seem like strange bedfellows, but they can actually be incorporated into one another quite easily. Just a few suggestions include:

  • Using a tablet or other tech to create a timeline of historical events.
  • Use a camera and editing software to film a report — if you’re feeling especially ambitious, add in an extra artistic element by having them film themselves as they act out a historical scene.
  • Look up mathematical systems and methods in historical contexts such as how the Romans built the Colosseum or how to write numbers as an Egyptian.
  • Focus a portion of your historical studies on the history of different STEM subjects such as space exploration, the origin of the Pythagorean theorem, or how alchemy and astrology were once considered critical sciences.

Incorporating STEM with Other Subjects

The emergence of STEM into the educational spotlight has been a necessary step for modern education. As teachers scramble to incorporate these critical subjects into their existing lesson plans, though, they must remember to balance them out with traditional subjects like social studies and art. 

Intermingling the various subjects together can be an ideal way to cover them all in applicable, hands-on scenarios that engage students and provide an educational synergy that is difficult to achieve when each subject is taught individually.

10 Ways to Support & Help Students with Anxiety in School

By Gigi Ward

Anxiety disorders affect millions of children each year, ranging from children experiencing panic attacks to disorders such as “school refusal” anxiety. 

According to recent statistics, 31.9% of adolescents, aged 13-18 in the US currently struggles with anxiety, around 7% of Australian children experiencing some type of anxiety disorder, 4.4% of 11-16 years old in the UK also having some kind of anxiety disorder, which is why it is imperative to tackle early signs and symptoms of anxiety in schoolchildren.

As a teacher, understanding children who experience anxiety in school while providing support and helping them to manage feelings of fear and panic are essential.

Common Causes of Anxiety in Schoolchildren

Children experience anxiety for a variety of reasons, often stemming from change, the fear of failure, or the fear of being unable to connect with their peers. Because each child is likely to experience anxiety for different reasons, it is important to hone on in each student individually to learn which tools and anxiety-relief methods are most suitable.

1. Practice Breathing Exercises

Anxiety is drastically increased when individuals are unable to breathe properly or find themselves with shallow and rapid breathing. Help your students calm themselves by setting aside time each day for traditional and deep-breathing exercises.

If you are able to set time aside for meditation during the school day. Even meditating for as little as 5-10 minutes each day has a significant positive effect on individuals who struggle with focus, anxiety, or panic attacks. Meditation is powerful and does not require special positions or being alone. Group meditation among peers also allows them to disconnect from technology while offering a time of day which is quiet and balanced.

2. Speak to the Parents of Your Children Who Are Experiencing Anxiety

Speak to the parents of your students who are experiencing anxiety to gain valuable insight into the root causes or issues that may trigger anxiety or panic attacks in the classroom. Inquire about possible anxiety at home and how anxiety manifests in each of your individual students to discover more regarding methods that are best for each child you have in your class. Kids can successfully manage anxiety with help and support from parents, which is why it is essential to speak to parental figures when working towards supporting students with anxiety in your school.

3. Speak Directly to Your Students Individually

There are many types of anxiety disorders in kids ranging from GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) to panic attack disorder. Without understanding how children truly feel, it can be difficult to provide the right solutions or supports. Speak directly to each of the children in your class who are experiencing anxiety individually to learn more about how they feel and when anxiety worsens for them.

4. Create Codes and Signals for Anxiety-Ridden Children

Create codes and signals for your students to use whenever they are feeling anxious or overwhelmed in the classroom. Use simple signs such as tugging at the ear, rubbing their noses, or even holding up a sign you provide them. Providing codewords or signals to your students with anxiety is extremely useful when you are unsure of how the children in your class feel throughout lessons. Take note of the individual behaviour of each of your students who experience anxiety to determine what triggers may increase their feelings of anxiety throughout each school day. 

5. Journaling

Provide gratitude journals for each of your students to write each day. Encourage sharing positive thoughts and happy feelings in the journals to boost moods while distracting students from feeling anxious and overwhelmed. Share positive or funny stories from your everyday life to create a sense of warmth and comfort for your entire classroom during journaling times. Allow your children to decorate their gratitude journals in a unique and individual way to showcase their personality while providing them with a sense of belonging among their peers.

6. Spend Time Outdoors

Feeling cooped up and stuck inside all day can quickly lead to feeling anxious or experiencing a panic attack. If possible, spend time with your students outdoors by reading books or exploring nature. Encourage nature walks during recess and share lessons about bugs, insects, and nature itself with your students who have anxiety. Feeling at ease and relaxed outdoors is helpful to alleviate feelings of stress and anxiety when cramped in classrooms throughout most of the day.

7. Help Kids Eat Healthy and Stay Well

Indubitably, a healthy diet and plenty of sleep makes a difference in students overall health and emotional wellbeing. It also makes a difference in how well a student can handle overwhelming situations they may face each day. Try to consider the type of food and snacks your students are consuming regularly. Are your students eating properly in general? It’s true that for the most part teachers don’t really have a control over what students eat at home and how much they sleep.

But, if you have meals with your students in class, use the time to talk about healthy food choices. You can talk about how food and rest hours can affect one’s physical health and emotional health, or even squeeze it into the curriculum.

8. Share Stories in the Classroom

Sharing stories in the classroom is another way to connect with all of your students while also allowing them to feel more comfortable in the space with you. Encourage positivity through storytelling and provide incentives to students who wish to participate and share their own stories. Promote silly and wholesome storytelling to keep your students feeling positive and happy rather than sad, anxious, or fearful of their surroundings. 

9. Squeeze in Some Art and Craft Activities

Create activities in the classroom that involve drawing, painting, colouring, using playdough and creating something with their hands. Arts and crafts are great for learners of all ages. There are plenty of benefits to arts and crafts for kids. Most importantly, art and crafts allow children to express themselves and give that soothing and calming effects or even meditative effect they need. Engaging in arts and craft activities in general can also alleviate stress levels and reduce anxiety. Art education is essential, and as a teacher, you should encourage students to learn about arts and help them get a hands-on experience.

10. Accommodate Students to Assist With Their Individual Needs

Not all students experience anxiety in the same way. While some students may have anxiety before a presentation, others may feel overwhelmed when taking a test in front of their peers. Provide proper accommodations for all of your students to ensure they are comfortable while test-taking, speaking, and even participating in physical education in front of others. Speak to your students individually to learn more about what additional anxiety-reducing methods can be integrated into their daily routines to reduce their feelings of panic and fear.

When you take the time with helping students with anxiety in school, create a classroom that is comfortable and considered a safe space for students. Learning how to help students with anxiety as a teacher is extremely fulfilling and helps to create a more productive and happy environment for all.

Author Bio

Gigi Wara is an inspired writer who loves writing about language and acquisition, career and personal improvement. This article about how to support students who have anxiety in school comes courtesy of Kids Helpline, Australia’s only free, private and confidential 24/7 phone and online counselling service for young people aged 5 to 25.

Why Districts Are Reluctant To Let Even Struggling Teachers Go

Photo by NeONBRAND on Unsplash

Those who want to reform public education in America have made one thing abundantly clear: they believe that teachers are the problem. They don’t often come right out and say so, but their actions are unmistakable. They weaken tenure protections because they want districts to more easily be able to dismiss veteran teachers. They end last-in-first-out policies for the same reason. They attack unions because they are the only thing standing between a teacher’s job and an administrator’s desire to give it to someone else. They push for new teacher evaluation systems as a way to identify the bad apples and to legitimize their removal, because who can argue with data? They advocate for more charter schools because charter leaders don’t usually have to deal with pesky unions who make it more difficult to fire substandard educators. They back alternative certification schemes as a way to undermine current professionals. And in perhaps their biggest tell, they pitch an absolute fit when their best-laid plans go to waste because the damn principals still won’t fire teachers!

Reformers believe that America can fire its way to better education. The so-called “5-10 percent solution,” a product of economist Eric Hanushek, is often cited by reformers. As you probably gathered, it posits that American education would improve if we consistently fired the worst 5-10 percent of teachers.

Read More About It (And Why It’s Probably a Dumb Idea) Here

This is the driving belief behind nearly every reform effort. But it’s yet to be put to the test because the people who would have to do the firing aren’t economists. They don’t work for think tanks. They actually have skin in the game. School administrators, unlike most reformers, operate in the real education world, and in that world, there are some very real consequences to letting even struggling teachers go. Consequently, very few principals give their teachers poor ratings.

A simple explanation for the high ratings might be that principals know best. They’re right there working next to the teachers all year, so perhaps we should take their ratings at face value; maybe most teachers really are effective.

The problem is that research suggests that principals’ evaluations don’t always reflect their honest opinions about the teachers in their buildings. Survey data from one urban district showed that evaluators perceived more than three times as many teachers in their schools to be below proficient than they rated as such. The authors of another study wrote:

“We find that principals’ evaluations of teachers are quite positive whether the stakes are high or low, but the low-stakes evaluations show substantially more use of lower rating categories, and many teachers rated ineffective on the low-stakes assessment receive “effective” or “highly effective” high-stakes ratings.”


So why do principals inflate teachers’ evaluations? Why are they reluctant to rate even obviously struggling teachers poorly? Given the power that many districts now have, why don’t more of them do what reformers want them to do and fire more teachers?

They have their reasons. Here are seven.

They probably won’t find anyone better.

Here’s a satisfying irony: Reformers’ efforts to make teaching better, a large part of which relies on the dismissal of large numbers of teachers, has resulted in the declining attractiveness of the profession, which has had the consequence of fewer and fewer young people enrolling in teacher preparation programs, thereby making it risky for principals to do the very thing reformers implore them to do: fire teachers. American education has never attracted the country’s highest-performing students and reform efforts have guaranteed that it never will. A principal has to be concerned that he might not find anyone better to replace a teacher he would like to get go.

Of course, this isn’t a universal problem. Some districts do indeed receive hundreds of resumes for open positions and they can choose among several impressive candidates. The problem is that those kinds of districts usually have students who do well no matter who teaches them. When you consider the potential consequences of letting a teacher go, is it really worth it if test scores will likely remain high with a replacement? And if scores are high, can principals even find the data to legitimize a teacher’s dismissal?

Conversely, the districts that reformers would say need the most teacher turnover (the ones with low test scores) are in the worst position to replace poor teachers with better ones because they are unattractive districts. Given that, a principal in a struggling district must weigh the benefits of firing even a struggling teacher against the costs outlined in the rest of this article, a calculus which becomes even more difficult with the knowledge that he’s unlikely to find anyone better.

The Principal’s Guilt

Nearly every principal agrees that the process to remove a teacher is time-consuming. Mahy lament this fact, but there’s a good reason for it. If a principal wants to fire a teacher, the least we should expect of them is to spend a fair amount of time with that teacher and offer some assistance. But because it’s time-consuming, many principals don’t dedicate enough time to helping a struggling educator. They don’t get in the teacher’s classroom often enough. They don’t meet enough. They don’t have conversations, or share best practices, or provide a mentor, or send the teacher to conferences, or provide a decent curriculum, or direct the struggling teacher to resources that might help. And because they don’t do those things they feel guilty. How can they evaluate such a teacher poorly when they would have to admit that, for at least one very important part of their job, they were also ineffective. If a teacher struggles, should not the principal share at least some of the responsibility for not intervening earlier? The guilt principals feel over their failure to adequately support a struggling teacher is one reason many principals don’t want to remove such a teacher. Doing so would be an admission of their own failures.

Staff Morale Already Sucks

There’s a risk that comes with firing any teacher, but that risk is magnified if such a teacher is popular with peers or if morale in the building is already low. Firing people doesn’t happen in a vacuum. There are reverberations. And when a principal lets a teacher go, she should know that every teacher will react to the news. If the teacher was widely recognized as ineffective, the firing can enhance the reputation of the principal. But if the teacher was well-liked, or if the teacher was perceived as effective with students even though she had other faults, you can bet there will be fallout. A message has been sent, but it is sometimes not the message intended. One problem with matters like these is confidentiality. In the absence of an official explanation, teachers will provide their own about why a teacher was let go, and those reasons can cause a chilling effect, a fearful lurch to conformity and away from risk-taking, or resentment and even animosity toward the building leaders. Firings are often received negatively by the teachers who remain, and principals will struggle to lead without positive relationships with their staffs. Given that morale is often already low in the buildings where reformers would like the see the most teachers fired, principals run a real risk when they decided to double-down on practices that further lower already sucky morale. The culture in education is that teaching is and has always been a secure job. Principals who want to challenge that culture do so at their peril (see Rhee, Michelle) It would be a little like a law firm deciding to no longer charge billable hours.

A Bad Reputation

News travels fast in the education world, especially at the regional level. In the last two weeks, my colleagues were abuzz over two news stories. In one, the district’s Superintendent decided to share surplus money with her teachers. In the other, a large neighboring district decided to significantly boost substitute teacher pay from now until Christmas. In education, word spreads quickly, and bad news moves like lightning. Most principals don’t want to become known as the administrator who fires people. Same for most districts. No one wants to work for the principal who evaluates teachers the harshest, just as no one wants to work for a district that has a reputation for high turnover. You’d be a fool to assume immunity. When you looked at the above graph, what’s the one state you reflexively did not want to teach in? You’re not alone. What’s the likelihood that New Mexico is going to attract great teachers when graphs like that exist? The problem with firing lots of teachers is that it’s hard to see why teachers would want to work in such a place.

Experience and Common Sense

As is so often the case in education (and elsewhere), you can find a study to support just about any contention. Some studies have shown that experience doesn’t matter much. Others show that it does. But even with the best research, people tend to default to their beliefs. And it’s pretty hard to fight the belief that people get better with experience since every teacher and principal will tell you that they’re better at their jobs now than they were in their first year. It’s just common sense, and when common sense runs headlong into a study by some economist you’ve never heard of, you’re going to go with common sense every time. So are principals. Sure, Cheryl might not be the greatest teacher right now, but she’s young. She’ll get better. It’s far easier to justify keeping even a struggling teacher around for another year with this line of thinking than it is to let her go, deal with the fallout, and invest time and money in the hopes you’ll find someone better.

Cost and Time

Hiring news teachers is a hassle. I’ve never done it, but I’ve been on four interview committees. Everyone working in a school is extraordinarily busy. No one is running around with free time, so when principals conduct interviews with new teacher candidates, it takes a large chunk of time out of their day, or, more often, they’re doing it in the summer and they have to beg teachers to come in over their break to sit on the interview team. There are often more rounds that take up even more time of those on the team (and they won’t be real happy to help if they’re pissed over the fact that the principal caused all of this because she fired a colleague they believed didn’t deserve it). Then, if you’re fortunate enough to find someone, there’s a mentor to find and training to provide (assuming you’re doing things the right way). Everything the district invested in the fired teacher is lost and you’re starting over with the new person. Once in the classroom, a new teacher will usually require more principal support. The new hire will need to be brought up to speed on building norms and procedures, a job often left to her experienced colleagues, who may resent the extra work, especially if they saw the firing as unwarranted. That can harm the culture of the building. And this all assumes that the new hire won’t keep interviewing, receive a better offer from a more affluent or geographically closer district and leave you in the lurch and having to go through the whole process all over again.


Determining bad teaching isn’t as easy as it sounds. Teaching isn’t just about test scores. It’s not even just about learning. As I wrote in Why Bad Teachers Are Hard To Find, different students need different things, and the perfect teacher for one student can be a terrible match for another. One teacher may closely reflect the values of one set of parents while holding views that are the antithesis of what other parents value about their child’s educational experience. Different students need different things, and teachers play many roles inside of a school. Teacher A may get great test scores, but her students might grow to hate school. Teacher B’s scores might be lower, but she may foster in students a love of learning that pays dividends down the road.

Part of the benefit of formal schooling is the exposure to different types of “bosses.” We shouldn’t want a monoculture in our schools where every teacher values the same things because we want flexible students who can adapt to changing circumstances and expectations. Principals are right to question whether their opinion should matter as much as it does. Just because a principal values publicly displayed learning goals, quiet classrooms, focused seatwork, and high test scores does not mean she should elevate her values above others. A little humility is called for because there is no one right way to educate children. The self-doubt principals rightly feel about what constitutes good teaching is enough to keep many of them from imposing their values on their staffs and it’s enough to stay their hand when it comes to rating teachers poorly on year-end evaluations.

Given all the potential negatives, it’s not surprising that most principals looking at the big picture opt to retain even struggling teachers. Until reformers start running schools full of actual teachers, they are unlikely to understand all the factors principals consider when making the difficult decision to rate their teachers poorly or take steps toward their dismissal.