22 Reasons Why Performance Pay for Teachers is a Terrible Idea

.

The idea of paying teachers for their performance is attractive to many reformers, and even to some educators. While the rhetoric behind such a push is often high-minded, with advocates claiming they want to “reward great teachers,” the motives are suspicious. Merit pay looks good on paper, but it will lead to a staggering number of unintended consequences, most of which are bad for kids, bad for school districts, bad for administrators, bad for teachers, and bad for communities. I thought of twenty-two. Add your own in the comments.

1. Cheating — If you pay more for higher test scores, you’ll get higher test scores, one way or another.

2. Lack of Money — So what happens in a school district where students score off the charts on tests and the district suddenly has to pay teachers more than they budgeted? My guess is that the state is not going to be willing to simply cut a bigger check.

3. Budgeting –School districts don’t like unknown costs and since employee compensation is by far the largest chunk of any district’s budget, I have no idea how districts would budget for upcoming school years. My guess is that they’d significantly lower the base pay for all teachers to provide ample wiggle room for performance pay. (Which might be what merit pay advocates are hoping for.)

4. Rigging Teacher Evaluations — Let’s assume performance pay will be paid out based on a teacher’s evaluation (which is based on test scores and principal observations). Now let’s assume each district has a finite amount of money and cannot get any more. Let’s further assume scores are unusually high (maybe because of cheating). How will districts afford unexpected higher costs? They’ll avoid them by directing principals to ding teachers on observations, thereby lowering their overall evaluation. Which is exactly what cash-strapped districts would do.

5. A Greater Incentive to Get Rid of Expensive Teachers — The major problem with the way public education is set up is that there is a greater incentive to control costs than there is to improve educational outcomes. Districts with funding problems get taken over. Districts that excel at educating kids get nothing extra. If states establish systems whereby “effective” teachers make more money, and if a district has too many “effective” teachers, then their costs will rise. There will exist a financial incentive, especially in tight times, to shed the most expensive employees, which in this case will be the most “effective” teachers. Doesn’t make a whole lot of educational sense. But when there’s a choice between money and academics, money always wins.

6. A Lack of Fairness in Pay — You might not like the current system. You might plausibly argue that an excellent teacher should be paid more than a mediocre one. But at least everyone understands the game before they get into it. How would a merit pay system affect a gym teacher? A music teacher? A special education teacher? There are a lot of different jobs in a school and not all of them are measured by students taking a test. Pay for performance doesn’t fit in far too many instances.

7. More Teacher Mobility — This is one consequence that teachers might actually benefit from. Right now, since tenure protections have been eroded and layoffs are supposed to happen according to teachers’ evaluations, the only thing keeping teachers in their districts is the pay structure. It doesn’t make financial sense for a ten-year veteran teacher to switch districts and be paid for five years, if they’re lucky. If districts decide to pay for performance instead of years of experience, there is nothing to keep teachers coming back every year. This might be good for teachers–it effectively makes them free agents every summer–but it’s horrible for districts and communities. Think about how much money districts would have to spend training new teachers every year. How much time would be wasted bringing large numbers of new members into the fold at the beginning of the school year and teaching them all the school procedures? Instability in a school is not a good thing.

8. Competition Among Teachers — Ideally, we hope that teachers share their best practices with their colleagues to make every child’s education better. A performance-based pay system will lead to competition among teachers for scare resources. You can expect infighting for Title One service time and other assistance, arguing over schedules, as teachers perceive their schedule gives them a disadvantage over another teacher’s, and possibly the hoarding of limited materials. Again, schools have set amounts of money. When more is given to one teacher, less has to be given to another.

9. Less Recess, Especially for Kids Who Need It Most — So you’re a teacher who knows his pay will be affected by how his students do on a test. You also know you have about ten students who, with extra practice, can realistically be expected to show enough growth over last year’s test that it makes it worth your while to give them extra practice. Now, where might you find the time to provide that extra practice? You could keep them after school and sacrifice time with your family, or you could take away their recess.

10. Fewer Arts Classes — A merit pay system might lead teachers to consider the following choice: Do I allow my students to go to music class, where they will learn very little that will help them do well on the standardized test that will determine my pay, or do I tutor them during this time?

11. Teacher Resentment Over Kids Who Need the Most Support — Obviously, under this pay system, teachers will want students who can and want to learn. Every year, in every grade level, there are a handful of students who, for a number of reasons, can’t and don’t. Instead of looking at these poor kids as people who need more love and support, teachers may look upon them with resentment, which is exactly what they don’t need. Not only will those students be costing their teachers dollars, their behavior may well impact the learning of other students, which could lead to an even lower teacher salary and even more resentment.

12. Less Patience for Misbehavior — Get ready principals. Because if you’re going to pay teachers based on performance then teachers are going to push for an atmosphere conducive to learning. Very few will be willing to work through a student’s behavior issues if they have the alternative of kicking the kid out and teaching the kids who have a chance of scoring well (or at least improving enough) on the state test.

13. Ignoring the Lowest of the Low — Why bother teaching the lowest students at all? Some teachers will do the calculus: If Student X has little to no chance of scoring well or improving much on the test, wouldn’t it make more sense for that teacher to focus his scarce time and energy on the students who do stand a chance of succeeding?

14. Ignoring the Highest of the High — Susie is going to do well on the test regardless of her teacher. She’s got great parents, she already reads above grade level, she’s good at math. Susie is literally money in the bank for her teacher in a performance-based pay system. Instead of challenging Susie, you can expect many teachers to leave Susie alone while she works with the students in the middle who have a chance of boosting her income.

15. Teaching to the Test — Already happens. Will happen even more.

16. Less Hands-On Learning — Standardized tests have no hands-on components. It would be a waste of time to do experiments when a teacher could be preparing students to do well on the state test to enhance her pay.

17. Say Goodbye to Field Trips, Assemblies, Class Parties, and Lessons from the Guidance Counselor — Few teachers will want to spend their most precious resource–time–on these activities when that time will do nothing to improve the chances that they’ll earn a larger salary. People respond to incentives. It’s naive to think teachers won’t.

18. Going Rogue — So a teacher’s school district has mandated that she teach a new reading program, but that teacher has seen really good results with a previous program. Now the teacher has a choice: Disobey orders from administration because she thinks she’ll get better results with the old program (and make more $), or be a good soldier even though it may mean less money for her. Multiply that over and over and you get each teacher making his or her own decision in every subject, which is essentially what we had before state standards and a “guaranteed and viable curriculum.”

19. Good Luck Finding a Placement for Student Teachers — You’re a teacher who is going to be paid based on how well your students do on a test. What are the chances you’re going to let some twenty-two year old rookie stand in front of your kids and stumble through a math unit?

20. Making Class Lists — I wouldn’t want to be a principal in charge of making class lists under a merit pay system. Nearly every teacher will complain about their list. Too many special ed students, too many autistic students, THAT kid, too many students, how come Mrs. Davis got all the good kids? She always gets all the good kids. Etc., etc., etc.

21. Ignoring Parent Requests — As a parent, I want to be able to have some say in who my child gets as her teacher, but the truth is some teachers get a lot more requests than others and it’s not always because the teacher is all that great. She may have just been around a long time. First-year teachers hardly ever get requests. And let’s be honest, parents who request teachers are, by definition, more involved and are more likely to have children who are better students as a result. So honoring parent requests will lead to class list inequality, which isn’t exactly fair when you’re tying teacher pay to the performance of their students. Districts will have a choice: Antagonize parents in the interests of keeping teachers happy with balanced classes or appease parents and anger teachers? They lose either way.

22. The Best Students Get the Best Teachers — This may be the worst unintended consequence of all. You’ve graduated at the top of your elite high school’s class. You could be anything. You decide to make a difference in the lives of young people and become a teacher. Upon graduating, you have a choice. You can teach in a poor district, where your job will be challenging, your students will come to class with all kinds of problems you never had growing up, their parents will be overworked, stressed out, lacking in parental skill, and just won’t have the time, energy, ability, or inclination to help their children much at home. These students will struggle to perform on the state test, and you will be punished with a lower salary. Or you could go teach in the university town with the brand new building, gorgeous athletic fields, air-conditioned rooms, and parents with college degrees who make their children read every night and offer to come into your classroom to teach lessons in their areas of expertise.  These students will score well on the test, with or without you, and you will be paid handsomely. Which would you choose? And is that good for the country?


I blog a couple of times each week. If you’d like those articles sent to you each weekend, go ahead and subscribe. It’s easy.

I write books, too. They’re here.

Why Teaching in a ‘C’ School Doesn’t Mean You’re a ‘C’ Teacher

At the end of every school year, my district loooooves to take surveys. About everything. We’d send out surveys about our last survey if we could. And we survey everyone—teachers, students, parents, and community members. For context, I teach in a large-ish public high school in Arizona, and to say that we sometimes lack community support would be an understatement. Don’t get me wrong, there are tons of families who do support us, but there are a lot of families who don’t.

The culture and climate of public education in Arizona is tenuous, to say the least. Our state government believes in school choice and so do many of our families, and with a well-advertised, state-labeled A+ district a 20-minute bus ride up the road, well, let’s just say many of our families take advantage of that highly-performing district—and, if we’re being honest, who can blame them?

At the end of last school year, we sent out our final survey. And when the results came back, there was this one long comment that has stuck with me since. And, as we near the end of another school year, I have found myself thinking about this comment over and over again.

Basically, here is what it said:

‘The high school is average. The teachers are average. The academic programs are average. The athletic programs are average. Everyone does just as much as they must and no more. There is nothing special about the school.’

Now, who wrote this comment? Was it a parent? A student? A teacher? I do not know. But, what I do know is that they sound pretty invested in commenting on my school and my role within that school.

To say that I was disheartened by this comment wouldn’t do it justice, but I have to believe that I am not the only one who has read feedback similar to this. And, to flat out ignore this comment, to brush it off and say it has no merit, well, that would be a mistake because, although it is hard for me to hear, there has to be a grain of truth in it. If someone finds our school to be mediocre, they must have reasons, right? It’s an uncomfortable conversation, but it’s one schools have to have.

There are many reasons we need to have these conversations, but the biggest reason is that I know I can’t be the only one who sometimes leaves school at the end of the day feeling total despair and frustration. I know I can’t be the only one who works in a school where support/resources/time/money is lacking, and each day, you show up to work and do your thing and at the end of that day, you aren’t sure if you’ve made a difference or not.

If you work in a school like that, I want you to walk away from this feeling that even though someone may have arbitrarily slapped a ‘C’ or ‘D’ label on your school—and by extension, on you—if you pause for a moment, you will realize that label does not define you.

You are not a ‘C’ teacher.

Your actions define your impact and if you get out there and make yourself an ‘A’ teacher, that is when the conversations in your community begin to change.

Across the nation, education is a hot topic right now. There are many conversations happening about teacher pay, the conditions of school buildings, lost funding, and the impacts these factors have on student learning and student achievement. There are also many misconceptions about what it means to be a teacher and there is this perception in my community and in communities around Arizona that when a school has a bad grade, that immediately means all of the teachers in that school are bad teachers. I’m here to tell you that is simply not true, but, if you remain silently complacent in your ‘C’ status, the perception will remain the same.

As educators, we all know that good teachers matter and that a good teacher has the biggest impact on student achievement out of all factors that schools can control. And there is data to support this. So then, the argument that follows is: “If good teachers matter and good teachers impact student achievement, why then do schools have bad grades?” There are so many answers to that question that I cannot even begin to answer, so I’m not going to. What I am going to answer is this: “If my school has a bad grade and my community doesn’t support us, what can I do to change the narrative?”

Now, that’s a question I can answer. When you became a teacher, you may not have realized it at the time, but you were signing up to be an educational advocate. In our current climate, it is more important than ever that we get out of our classrooms and advocate for our students, our school, our profession, and the future of our schools.

When you, and the teachers around you, stop treating your school like a ‘C’ school and your teachers like ‘C’ teachers, only good things can happen! If you want that first push, check out the diffusion of innovations theory. Figure out your own sphere of influence, find people who will feed your soul and your work, pick one thing to impact, and then work on that thing. Then, when someone accuses you of being “average” or “mediocre,” you will be able to tell them about the good things you are working on and why you are, in fact, an ‘A’ teacher.

In the famous words of Taylor Mali, teachers “can make a C+ feel like a Congressional honor.” Your reality is dependent on your perspective, and so is that of your students, your parents, and your community. So, stop treating your school like a ‘C’ school and it will cease to be one.

 

Aidan Balt
Maricopa High School
Grades 9 & 12
@balt_ms

Ms. Aidan Balt has a B.A. in Secondary English Education from the University of Sioux Falls (South Dakota) and a M.Ed. in Educational Leadership, with distinction, from Northern Arizona University. She is currently pursuing National Board Certification in Language Arts and is a certified Arizona Master Teacher through the AZK12 Center. She is a Beginning Teacher Mentor and she spends half of her school day in her own classroom and half of her school day in the classrooms of the beginning teachers she supports. She is the English Department Chairperson and the MHS Gifted and Talented Teacher Liaison. She is currently teaching 12th grade Advanced Placement Literature and Composition and English 1 Honors, but she has taught grades 9-12 typical, honors, and advanced. This is her eighth year as a teacher at Maricopa High School. Before becoming a teacher, Aidan worked for Volunteers of America, Dakotas, and brought her years of experience in working with youths of diverse backgrounds, including young refugees, into her role as a classroom teacher.

How to Get Your Principal to Stop Requiring Lesson Plans

In my last article, I wrote about the importance of teachers objecting to unreasonable requests at the earliest possible moment. Today, I’ll discuss one such objectionable practice that no competent teacher should put up with: required lesson plans.

There is almost no reason for principals to ask their teachers to submit lesson plans on any kind of regular basis. There are a slew of reasons why they shouldn’t.

Lesson Plans Don’t Tell Principals Anything Useful

Yesterday I planned to work out. I didn’t. Last year, I planned to publish six books. I published three. Most mornings, I plan to be patient with my students, but then Jimmy does what Jimmy does every day and those plans are quickly forgotten. Just 8% of New Year’s resolutions are kept. 41% of tasks on people’s to-do lists are never completed. Plans are regularly ignored or discarded as life happens. Plans don’t tell you anything except people’s intentions (and that’s if they’re being honest about them). Collecting teachers’ lesson plans doesn’t tell a principal anything about what actually happens in teachers’ rooms. If principals want to know if their teachers are doing their jobs, they should skip the plans and watch them teach.

Required Lesson Plans Waste Teachers’ Time

Every teacher I know has lesson plans. Very few teachers I know have detailed lesson plans like the kind they were required to write in college. There’s a good reason. In college, teachers are learning how to plan lessons. They don’t know much, so instructors read their plans and provided feedback so that teachers will consider things they maybe hadn’t.

Employed teachers are professionals, and the plans they write are for them. As such, they will vary just as much as teachers do. What works for one will not work for others. And there’s no way a principal can evaluate a teacher’s lesson plans without also watching the teacher teach. Required lesson plans are often concoctions. Dutiful teachers record learning goals and include things they never include on the plans they make for themselves.

As such, they’re a giant waste of time, and that is a huge deal. Any principal who doesn’t understand and respect how pressed for time teachers already are doesn’t understand teaching. Period. When principals require busywork they’re essentially telling teachers that they don’t get it or that they do, but don’t care. The one thing every teacher wants more of, even more so than money, is time. Principals should do everything they can to solve that problem. Requiring lesson plans makes it worse.

Detailed, Written Lesson Plans Don’t Make Sense Anymore

One interesting thing about teaching is that while governments and school districts have become more prescriptive they have simultaneously held onto practices that are no longer relevant. Detailed lesson plans are one such revenant. If you work for a district that doesn’t trust you to plan your own lessons and instead requires you to follow a scripted program with fidelity, then why in the world would you have to write down your lesson plans? They’re already written in the teachers’ guide that you’ve been told to blindly follow. If principals want required lesson plans, then a reasonable question is why. Why should teachers need to rewrite plans that they’ve been handed and told to use?

Required Lesson Plans Destroy Staff Morale

Principals who require lesson plans are micromanaging their staffs and sending the message that they don’t trust their teachers to do their jobs. They’re checking up on their teachers (and in a time-wasting, ineffective way), and if teachers have given no reason for such a lack of trust, then such a practice destroys staff morale.

Here’s an idea for schools: Hire the best teachers you can find. Let them do their jobs. If it looks like they’re doing that, then stay out of their way and let them keep doing it. Since they waste teachers’ time and don’t provide useful information, it’s hard to argue that required lesson plans are about anything other than control. They’re a reminder that while you may think you have autonomy in your classroom, somebody is watching. That’s horribly demotivating.

There is only one situation when a principal should require submitted lesson plans and that is in the case of a teacher who is struggling. In an effort to identify causes of the struggles, a principal should ask to see the teacher’s lesson plans to see if poor planning might be a factor. It may be that the planning is poor, or it may be that the plans are fine, but that the teacher doesn’t execute them, or that classroom management problems interfere with their execution. Whatever the ultimate reasons, principals should never require lesson plans of teachers who aren’t struggling and they shouldn’t require them if they aren’t willing to follow-up with an observation and then provide feedback on the plans and their execution.

So if you want to get your principal to stop requiring lesson plans, do the following:

First, talk to her about all of the above. Sometimes, bosses don’t realize how their decisions affect their staffs. Give her the benefit of the doubt, but explain the damaging effects this requirement has on teachers. Respectfully lay out your case, and ask her to explain why she requires lesson plans. Hopefully, that’s enough for her to reconsider. But if it’s not, then it’s time to fight fire with fire:

  1. Write your lesson plans.
  2. At the end of each submission, attach the following: I appreciate your willingness to look over my plans to help me be more effective. Can we please meet at your earliest convenience to discuss my plans? I look forward to hearing your detailed feedback on them. Because why should you be the only one inconvenienced?
  3. Submit the lesson plans.
  4. Wait.

If you don’t receive any feedback or a response to your meeting request (which of course you don’t actually want), stop submitting lesson plans. No feedback means one of two things: Your principal isn’t collecting your lesson plans to help you get better or he’s not reading them at all.

What will you do if he requires the plans anyway, even after listening to your objections and after ignoring your requests for feedback?

Remind him that he has bosses to answer to and that he has a staff he has to work with and rely on. And if you really want to twist the knife, let your principal’s supervisor know that you repeatedly requested meetings so you could improve your lesson planning, but he didn’t respond.

This is not a minor issue. It’s worth upsetting a few apple carts over. Principals who require lesson plans but don’t read them or even provide feedback on them do not respect teachers. Period. Principals who don’t stand up to district leaders on this issue can’t be trusted to stand up for their staff on any other issue. Push back. Demand that required lesson plans actually get read, responded to, and followed up on with observations. Anything less than that is exploitative and you shouldn’t let it pass. Because the exploitation and the arbitrary busywork won’t stop there. Give in on this and you’re volunteering for more unreasonable mandates.

Hard Work vs. Smart Work – A Debate

The following is a guest post by Anish Passi, Director at Neostencil, an ed-tech startup funded by the Times Group. He previously founded Testcafe – also in the ed-tech space. He has extensive experience in the education industry, with past exposure to investment banking, technology, real estate, and retail consulting.

Hard work and smart work go hand in hand. There is no denying that people need to work hard to create a foundation for great achievements. However, if students work smart, they can do the same amount of work faster and efficiently. Teachers need to understand the thin line between making students work relentlessly hard and enabling them to learn smart work.

There is a preconceived notion among students that to succeed one must put in effort and work hard for it. Some people also think that one should give up everything else and focus all their energies on the final goal. While this is somewhat true, they can do the same amount of work in a shorter time by simply working smarter.

Merging Hard Work & Smart Work Together

To help students succeed in life, teachers should push students to practice both hard work and smart work simultaneously.  It is essential to work hard first because only then will students understand the depth of exactly what they are doing and then devise a smarter plan accordingly. The unfortunate truth is that in this fast-paced world, people want to switch to smart work but don’t put in any effort first. This could lead to a downfall. Like during preparation for competitive exams such as the UPSC, CAT, GMAT etc. people put in very little time to get the concepts right and jump to problem solving. Instead, they should focus more on concepts which would be hard work at the start but will make the process a lot simpler and easier.

Students must understand the project thoroughly, plan, and build a process around it. When they do this, they’ve framed all the possibilities, and only then can they undertake an easier way of completing the task. With teacher’s input, working smart won’t be much of an issue, and students will be able to work efficiently using fewer resources and time. The trick is to combine hard work and smart work.

Example: Every talented artist trains and gets mentored to perfect their skills. They spend years practicing without taking any breaks or shortcuts to make themselves the best. Once they reach the peak of success, they tend to make fewer errors and are more experienced. This results in better time management and less use of energy and effort. They have now become smart, but they started by working hard. This rule applies to every sphere of life.

Differences Between the Two

Let’s take a look at some of the differences between working hard vs working smart.

Meaning

Hard work means putting in a lot of time and effort doing a certain amount of work. Whereas, smart work means spending less amount of time performing the same amount of work.

Aim

Hard work aims at the quantity and may become monotonous and boring after a certain period. Smart work aims at achieving goals with quality.

Process of Working

Working hard involves a lot of tedious work which is carried out traditionally. But, if people work smartly, they can achieve more output by working in an unconventional and modern way which could include attending webinars, classes, and coaching.

Conceptualization

Hard work utilizes the traditional format of working, and there aren’t many changes involved. On the other hand, smart work involves using old ideas and transforming them to yield better results.

End Goal

People who work hard sometimes feel that they weren’t able to achieve their set goal. Smart workers attain their goals faster through proper time management.

A simple way to turn hard work into smart work is by understanding the aftermath of the process. If students keep on working continuously without any reliable results, then they should consider working smartly. Rather than focusing all the attention on just the work, think about all the alternatives that can be undertaken to do the same amount of work in less time. Set deadlines and goals that they should achieve in a set timeframe and prioritize the important tasks first. This way you will not waste a lot of time on unimportant things.

Contrary to this, some people believe that there is no replacement for hard work. Working smart is a shortcut that doesn’t work at all stages of life. Still, smart work has no doubt worked for many. If one can achieve the same quantity of work at the same time, that is not exactly a shortcut; it is just a better alternative.

Conclusion

If you can incorporate working hard and smart together, you will achieve great heights and lead yourself to a better life. One who works hard and smart will in due course of time procure all the benefits and rake in the golden opportunity to probably not work at all.

5 Ways to Encourage Shy Students to Participate in the Classroom

We all have had that quiet kid in the class who keeps silent during group discussions, the one who has done his homework but never gives answers out loud. Whether they are afraid of getting things wrong or speaking up before their peers, shy students withdraw into themselves and it seems impossible to get them involved no matter how hard you try.

While overactive students are considered the most challenging ones, quiet kids are often more difficult. They don’t mess around in class, but it is harder to encourage them to participate and express themselves.

Here are five tips for getting your quiet students to come out of their shells and share their voices with the class.

1. Create small discussion groups

Shy students may be more comfortable speaking up in smaller groups than before the whole classroom. Creating groups with less outgoing students and suggesting activities that require interaction will help quiet students get out of their comfort zone and communicate with one another.

There are different group activities you can suggest to help the students overcome their shyness. Run an “about myself” activity during which they speak about their likes and dislikes, or play a game of emotion charades where they have to act out various feelings.

2. Change the traditional way of asking questions

Asking questions is the most common method of assessing learning and encouraging student engagement, but it’s not always effective. Active students usually monopolize classroom discussions, while the more introverted ones feel uncomfortable raising their hands and answering questions.

A great way to get shy students involved in Q&As is to use real-time polling tools, such as Swift Polling, to challenge your students on what they’ve learned during the lesson. You can create questions with multiple answers and give students some time to text to vote for the right answer. The ability to submit answers anonymously will reduce the fear of making mistakes and students will likely be more active, while you’ll get the chance to gauge their understanding of the subject material.

You can also use real-time polling tools to receive anonymous feedback about the lesson and learn what activities your students like most.

3. Allow students to move around

Different students have different learning styles. Some are auditory or visual learners, while others perceive information better through a physical experience – touching, feeling or doing.

You may discover that students who are usually quiet during lectures or demonstrations are better engaged in physical activities. For example, you can organize gallery walks.

In this activity, students add to their knowledge through active discussions and cooperative learning. The class is divided into several groups. The teacher hangs or stages several open-ended questions around the classroom or outdoors, as in an art gallery, and each group is given time to discuss the questions and add their thoughts with markers or sticky notes. Having contributed to the solution of all questions, the groups return to the first question they faced and see comments left by other groups. Meanwhile, the teacher keeps interacting with students and observing the level of their activity.

For quiet students, the movement and less formal atmosphere can make expressing what’s on their mind easier.

4. Recognize and reward active contribution

Make sure to encourage shy students at every little step they take. Comment on their work and praise their attempts to interact in the classroom. Make sure to give them an important job in the classroom so that they feel they are contributing. When possible, display their work where other students can see it and make them feel proud of their accomplishments. These will help them develop confidence and make further steps toward overcoming their fears.

5. Build a trustful relationship with shy students

Introverted students tend to hide in the end rows to avoid being in the spotlight. Make sure to place them in the front of the classroom to be closer to them and interact with them more easily. Seat them next to the students who are most likely to befriend them and try to organize social interactions.

While you have to keep continuous contact with all the students, allocate some extra time to communicate with shy students one-on-one and build rapport with them. Even a few conversations with introverted students can help to create a stronger connection and give them that little nudge to reach out.

_____________

The above article was submitted by Swift Polling and contains affiliate links.